Topic 9 details how to approach PN in order to improve competency and skill in clinical nutrition to more effectively treat disease and promote health. You will be able to: identify indications for PN; know the risks and benefits of different i.v. access; know different PN systems and their advantages and limits; know and mitigate compounding risks using GMP, and understand the pharmacist's responsibilities for admixing services; understand risks of mixing i.v. drugs and PN; realise serial monitoring is a vital tool for achieving optimal results; understand how to implement monitoring protocols to optimise PN and prevent or quickly detect complications; and acquire tools to interpret new scientific information, genetic predisposition and link with nutrition.