Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder with disturbances not only of carbohydrate metabolism but lipid and protein metabolism as well. At diagnosis, Type 1 DM may be associated to malnutrition. However, Type 2 DM patients are generally obese and may have a relative reduction of fat free mass. Micronutrient deficiencies have been identified as risk factors for development of DM and poorer metabolic control, although therapeutic interventions have met variable success, depending on each individual micronutrient. When patients with stress hyperglycemia or DM require artificial nutrition, they may need the combination of insulin protocols and special formulas characterized by changes of the quality and/or quantity of carbohydrates and lipids, adjusting the energy provision to the nutritional requirements and metabolic control. The indications for specific formulas in diabetic patients are adjusted to the clinical setting and to the metabolic control achieved in the in individual patient.