Dyslipidemia (DL) is an important cause of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. It can also cause pancreatitis and skin deposit of lipids. International scientific societies have issued clinical guidelines. The recommendations for diagnosis and management of these disorders may vary among them. It is advisable that health care providers choose the guidelines that better adapt to local cardiovascular risk and patterns of established disease. Along with statins and fibrates, new drugs have recently joined the therapeutic options for dyslipidemia such as antibodies to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9, (PCSK 9), cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotides and Inhibitors of the microsomal triglyceride transport protein (MTP). On the other hand, systemic inflammatory response is characterized by changes in lipid metabolism. When artificial nutrition is prescribed patients may experience lipid metabolism alterations due to primary lipid disorders or to the associated disease requiring special nutrition. Therefore, this prescription should carefully take into consideration lipid metabolism, as well as quality and quantity of lipids. Periodic laboratory checking will indicate the changes that may be needed to minimize these disturbances.