The modules in this topic have been developed to highlight the present clinical problem of malnutrition and the need for routinely screening patients for malnutrition using validated tools. Students will learn the difference between screening and assessment of malnutrition, and the tools/techniques to be used, with their advantages and limitations. Students will also learn the clinical relevance of body composition and how it can be estimated or measured. The modules will discuss the clinical relevance of energy expenditure and its components, and how it can be estimated or measured. Students will be acquainted to the concept of energy balance, and the strategies available to monitor patients at nutritional risk and their response to nutritional support.